Of the more than 600 carotenoids found in nature, only lutein and zeaxanthin isomers—RR-zeaxanthin and RS (meso)-zeaxanthin—are located in the eye, speciﬁcally the macula. The macular carotenoids make up the macular pigment, and their deposition in the macula is highly specific: lutein is preferentially deposited in the peripheral macula, RR-zeaxanthin in the mid-peripheral macula and RS-zeaxanthin at the center of the macula—the region most susceptible to photo-oxidative damage. Acting as primary filters of high-energy blue light, lutein and zeaxanthin isomers support visual health and acuity by protecting against oxidative stress and inﬂammation.
Lutein and zeaxanthin are not produced by the body and their specialized locations and functions emphasize the need to consume all three macular carotenoids through diet or supplementation. Lutein and RR-zeaxanthin are found in dark green leafy vegetables and yellow to orange fruits and vegetables, while RS-zeaxanthin is found in fish such as salmon, sardine and trout.
Given that the average US dietary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin is far below levels shown in research to be beneficial (less than 2 mg lutein and 0.5 mg zeaxanthin), supplementation may be a more viable approach to maintain optimal levels of all three macular carotenoids to support visual health.
Higher levels of zeaxanthin isomers than most commercial forms
Manufactured under a fully vertically integrated supply chain
FDA‐acknowledged GRAS notification
Non-GMO Project Verified SKUs available
Available in a variety of 100% vegetarian beadlets, oil suspensions and powder